On June 20th, the world marks ‘World Refugee Day’, commemorating the strength, courage and perseverance of of refugees. On this day, we remember the 20th-century expulsion of Jews from Arab and Muslim countries. Jewish communities in Arab countries formed a significant part of the Jewish diaspora. From 1920 onward, some 850,000 Jews were expelled from their homes – from Tripoi to Cairo, from Damascus to Baghdad.
Gordon Robertson looks at Israel’s remarkable agricultural innovation, with special focus on the role of the kibbutz in Israel’s agricultural success, growing crops and orchards in desert, rocky land and swamps with hard work and ingenuity.